Causes and preventive measures of fire accidents i

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Causes and preventive measures of fire accidents in small chemical enterprises

small chemical enterprises refer to enterprises that produce, process and store chemical raw materials and chemical products with less investment and small scale. The raw materials, intermediates and even the products themselves for the production of chemical products are flammable, explosive, corrosive and toxic substances. It is an important content of current fire safety work to carefully analyze the characteristics, existing problems and causes of fire accidents in small chemical enterprises, actively implement fire prevention measures, control fire accidents and reduce fire accident losses

I. characteristics of fire accidents

1. Causing heavy casualties and property damage

as the chemical raw materials and chemical products produced, processed and stored by chemical enterprises are highly flammable, explosive, corrosive and toxic, once a fire or leakage occurs, it is often accompanied by explosion, re ignition and re explosion, three-dimensional, large-area, multi fire point and other forms of combustion. It will not only lead to production stoppage and equipment damage, but also cause heavy casualties and irretrievable impact

2. Environmental pollution

raw materials used in chemical production, products, intermediates, by-products and impurities in them, as well as "three wastes" emissions in production, are industrial poisons, toxic and corrosive. Once leaked into the atmosphere or discharged into rivers, it is easy to cause a large number of casualties and pollution of air and water resources, with long-lasting impact and great difficulty in governance

3. It is difficult to put out fire and rescue, which is easy to cause casualties of rescue personnel.

generally speaking, the scene of chemical safety accidents is very complex, often accompanied by combustion and explosion, and the fire spreads violently. In case of toxic gas, it will seriously threaten the safety of fire-fighting and rescue personnel; The selection method of safety belt tension testing machine corrosive substances will burn the skin of rescuers and fire-fighting and rescue equipment; The collapse of buildings will cause serious consequences such as casualties of rescue workers. All these will bring great difficulties to the fire fighting and rescue work

second, the existing problems

1. The fire audit and acceptance procedures are incomplete

most of the small chemical enterprises belong to family enterprises, with small production scale, weak technical force, poor legal awareness of enterprise operators, and high randomness. The new, reconstruction and expansion of dangerous goods vehicles in the plant area at will should correctly select rooms, warehouses or other supporting facilities according to the regulations, and do not take the initiative to apply for fire administrative approval procedures, resulting in a large number of small chemical enterprises that do not meet the current fire technical specifications

2. The production plant fails to meet the requirements

for example, short-term investment in renting abandoned plants for production, failure to design the structure and layout of the plant according to the needs of chemical process flow and relevant national specifications, and congenital fire hazards exist in fire separation, ventilation, leakage prevention, explosion-proof pressure relief, fire-fighting facilities, etc

3. Imperfect fire-fighting infrastructure

most small chemical enterprises have no fire-fighting equipment, indoor and outdoor fire-fighting water supply systems and other fire-fighting infrastructure at all. Although some enterprises have set up water supply systems, the pressure of municipal water supply pipes can not meet the needs of fire fighting water due to the remote location of the plant

4. The enterprise legal person has a serious idea of valuing efficiency over safety.

the enterprise legal person has a weak awareness of fire safety and the management system is not in place. As long as there is no fire accident, most of the responsible persons will show an attitude of disapproval, or emphasize the reasons and do not rectify the hidden problems, or passively rectify and do not complete

5. Fire safety management is not implemented

small chemical enterprises are mostly self-employed, there is no perfect fire protection organization, and there is a lack of professional management personnel, resulting in no interest in fire safety management and widespread management confusion. In order to maximize economic benefits, most enterprises reduce personnel and capital investment in fire safety management, often one person holds several positions, and even some owners act as both bosses and fire safety managers, resulting in the failure to implement fire safety management at all

6. Employees have not received fire safety training

small chemical enterprises are mostly self-employed, and the employees are highly mobile and cannot be relatively fixed. Therefore, many employees fail to receive fire safety training in time, do not understand the characteristics of chemical materials, are not familiar with operating procedures and precautions, and rush to work, which is very likely to cause accidents due to illegal operations, and do not know the use of fire-fighting equipment after the accident Fire fighting and escape methods can easily lead to a situation in which a small fire leads to a major disaster

7. He insists that the equipment selection is wrong

the raw materials for chemical production are inflammable, explosive, reactive, toxic and corrosive. The processing method is basically to adopt mixing, quenching, and some reactions such as combination and decomposition in pressure vessels such as reaction kettles. Some raw materials and reaction intermediates are inflammable and explosive, which exist in liquid or gaseous form, and are prone to leakage, If some process equipment and electrical circuits are not explosion-proof or have not been explosion-proof treated, the leaked flammable liquid or gas is very prone to fire and explosion accidents when encountering mechanical friction or electrical sparks

8. The anti-static measures are not in place

the anti-static treatment is very easy to be ignored. Most pipelines in the chemical production industry are connected by steel pipe threads. The flow of chemical solvents in pipelines and equipment will generate static electricity due to friction. If the static electricity cannot be removed in time, it will cause charge accumulation, spark discharge, and fire and explosion accidents

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